Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland and udder tissue. It usually occurs as an immune response to bacterial invasion of the teat canal by a variety of bacterial sources present on the farm (commonly through bedding or contaminated teat dips), and can also occur as a result of chemical, mechanical, or thermal injury to the cow’s udder.
Mastitis is a multifactorial disease, closely related to the production system and environment that which cows are kept. Mastitis risk factors or disease determinants can be classified into three groups: host, pathogen, and environmental determinants.


Subclinical: Few symptoms of subclinical mastitis appear, although it is present in most dairy herds.
Somatic cell counts measure milk quality and can be used as an indicator of mastitis prevalence.
Clinical mastitis: The most obvious symptoms of clinical mastitis in the udder are swelling, heat, hardness, redness, or pain.
Milk takes on a watery appearance, flakes, clots or pus is often present.
A reduction in milk yields, increases in body temperature, lack of appetite, and a reduction in mobility due to the pain of a swollen udder are also common signs.