Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious, infectious respiratory disease that is caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BVH-1). It can affect young and older cattle.
In addition to causing respiratory disease, this virus can cause conjunctivitis, abortions, encephalitis, and generalized systemic infections.
IBR is characterized by acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
After the first infection, the virus is never fully removed. It stays behind in nerve cells in the brain as a life-long latent (hidden) infection. However, at times of stress, the virus can begin to multiply again and maybe re-excreted, generally from the nose and the eyes; an animal that has been infected can never be considered safe.
The purchase of infected animals is the main source of new infections.
Diseases caused by the virus can be serious; therefore it is a barrier to international trade. Cattle with BoHV-1antibody cannot be exported to BoHV-1-free countries. Neither can they be accepted into the artificial insemination (AI) centers.
Symptoms; Fever, Coughing, Depression, Loss of appetite, Hyperaemia of the mucosae, Mucosa lesions, Nasal discharge, Conjunctivitis, Drop in milk production, Infertility, Abortion